Glossary of Awning Terms

Abrasion Resistance Capacity of material to withstand wear due to friction, rubbing, or scraping.

Acceleration Stress Additional stress placed on rope due to increasing the velocity of load.

Acrylic Generic term for manufactured fiber in which the fiber- forming substance is any long — chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of acrylonitrile units. Made in both filament and staple forms.

Aluminum Pipe Manufactured with the same dimensions as steel pipe, it weighs only one-third as much. On the other hand, it is only one-third as stiff as steel pipe. Temper is lost at welded joints.

Aluminum Tubing This is available in a wide variety of shapes, sizes and tempers, with an array of advantages and disadvantages in comparison to steel.

Anchorage This involves the location, style and strength of connections from the awning or canopy to the building or to its foundations.

Awning An awning is an architectural projection that provides weather protection, identity or decoration and is wholly supported by the building to which it is attached. An awning is comprised of a lightweight, rigid skeleton structure over which a rigid covering is attached.

Backlit Awning (see Illuminated Awning)

Binding or Braid A Narrow woven fabric. Usually used to edge the valance of an awning. Breaking Strength The measured load required to break a fabric or rope under tension; also called tensile strength.

C-Rail (also known as Awning Rail) An aluminum channel attached to the frame so that canvas with a rope pocket can slide in and out (most often used for separate valances).

Canopy A canopy is an architectural projection that provides weather protection, identity or decoration and is supported by the building to which it is attached and at the outer end by not less than one stanchion. A canopy is comprised of a rigid structure over which a rigid covering is attached.

Coated Fabrics that are coated are usually done so with a liquid or semi liquid product. Coatings can be urethanes, acrylics, PVC, neoprenes, and many other types of substances. Knife over roll: the material rolls past a knife that acts to spread a liquid substance across the width of the fabric. Extrusion: dry chemical mixes are heated and mixed through an extruder and then passed through a roller or die to flatten and spread the substance across the width of the fabric.

Coated Fabric Fabrics coated, covered, or treated with various substances to make them stronger and/or more resistant to weathering elements. Coating substances include rubber, resins, plastics, PVC, melamine’s, oil finishes, etc.

Convex An awning configuration characterized by a series of parallel bows in the shape of a convex curve. It produces a radius shape with flat ends.

Crazing Describes the condition of scratch marks on the surface of fabrics. These can occur as a result of abrasion or folding. It is usually a topical condition and does not affect the fabric’s performance except from an aesthetic point of view.

Cover The material that is stretched on to the frame. o Canvas a woven fabric out of acrylic, polyester and cotton fibers used to give a warmer feel to an awning. o Vinyl fabrics made with PVC coating over a polyester scrim used to give high impact finish.

Delamination Describes the separation of the individual plies in a laminate. Laminates are typically made of two or more plies that are fused together under combinations of heat, pressure and adhesive. When a lamination comes apart, delamination has occurred.

Denier Unit of weight indicating size of a fiber filament based on weight in grams of a standard stand of 9,000 meters. The higher the denier number, the heavier the yarn. Used in connection with silk, rayon, acetate, and most man — made fibers.

Die Casting The forming of parts by forcing molten metal into metal molds. Castings made with this process can be made to very exacting tolerance. Zinc and aluminum are most commonly used.

Di-Electric Welding (Also referred to as “RF welding”.) Certain fabrics with “thermoplastic” properties, such as vinyl, can be welded together with various machines that use high frequency electrical impulse. A high frequency electric impulse is sent through the fabrics by means of a bar or table and this mixes up the molecular structure of the thermoplastic materials. When the bar or table is removed, the two fabrics are melted or welded together. This differs from Hot Air Welding, but the end result is the same.

Dimensional Stability Fabrics can stretch and shrink in the warp, fill or bias directions, depending on the construction and/ or fibers employed. When a fabric is dimensionally stable, means that stretching and shrinking have been controlled to a certain degree.

Egg Crate A 1/2″ x 1/2″ x 1/2″ louvered non-yellowing polystyrene panel used for the finishing touches to the underside of your awning.

Eradication (See Graphics)

Extrusion Coated When some coated vinyl fabrics are produced, the vinyl is applied in a semi-liquid (molten) state and calendared on by means of heavy cylinder. The vinyl is extruded in the form of a semi-liquid bar and pressed between large cylinders to spread it onto the fabric.

Fiber The fundamental unit that makes up a textile raw material such as cotton or woven acrylic.

Fire Proofed A fabric or substance which has been treated so that it is absolutely impervious to flame, and will not, under any circumstances, support a flame. Erroneously used in reference to fire retardant goods.

Fire Retardant Finish A finish rendering a cloth which will repel flame, or which will prevent the spreading of flame, or which will not support a flame. Usually tested for length of time it takes for a flaming portion of the cloth to extinguish itself.

Frame Parts Components that make up the structure of an awning.

Frames A metal structure of an awning used to give shape and design. Typically frames are made from aluminum or steel and are joined together by welding or by specially engineered fittings. Graphics G & J Awning is capable of providing various types of graphics. One or several techniques may be applied to any given project. o Adhesive Applying a pressure sensitive vinyl to the surface of an awning. o Cut-out Lettering Lettering or graphic elements that are cut out of a fabric and replaced from behind with letters or graphics of another material. o Eradication The process of removing the colored topcoat from a material allowing the white base to show through. This process can only be done on materials designed for eradicating. o Painted / Hand Painted Hand painted directly on the surface of an awning. o Pressure-Sensitive Graphics Pressure-sensitive vinyl film is cut by hand or by computer to a desired design and then adhered in the proper register on the fabric as decoration. o Welded (heat-sealed) The process of using a radio frequency welder to permanently bond the graphic to the primary material.

High-Strength Steel Tubing This is a cold worked, thin wall steel tubing that is available in round, square and rectangular shapes. Popular sizes for the awning industry are less than 2 inches. High-strength steel tubing normally is furnished with corrosion inhibiting surface treatments. It is also easily bent to designer shapes, relatively light weight and easily welded.

Hot Dip Galvanized Refers to a finish that is the result of metal being dipped into a hot solution of zinc to add a protective, ‘sacrificial’ coating to the metal. Awning iron and some malleable fittings have typically been hot dip galvanized.

Illuminated Awning A lighting system placed behind the fabric structure causing the fabric to be illuminated.

Lacing This is the most traditional technique of attaching a fabric cover to an awning frame. Grommets are placed along the edge of the fabric cover. The cover is tied to the frame by lacing thin rope through the grommets.

Laminate Laminated fabrics are made of two or more plies fused together under a combination of heat, pressure and adhesives. Weblon, Herculite and Lam- A- Lite are examples of a laminated fabric.

Laminated Fabric A three-layer fabric, normally constructed of a plastic top and bottom layer, and an intermediate scrim layer.

Lateral Arm Awning Also called “Retractable Patio Awnings”. These awnings resemble typical traditional triangular structures except they rarely have end fabric panels and they include a manual or electric cranking system that allows the awning to be folded up or retracted against the wall.

Load A load is anything that causes force to be exerted on a structural member.

Master Fabrics Craftsmen A certification given to a person who has been judged by the IFAI & by peers in the technical fabrics industry. The title of “Master Fabrics Craftsman” is earned by demonstrating a superior knowledge of the technical fabrics industry, by illustrating superior skills in the manufacture, design, fabrication, and installation of such fabric products, and by endorsing the code of ethics of the Industrial Fabrics Association International (IFAI).

Mesh Any fabric, knitted or woven, with an open texture, fine or coarse.

Mildew Proof It is unlikely that any fabric can be rendered permanently mildew proof under all conditions. “Mildew Resistant” is a more proper term. Usually refers to a treatment on a cloth with various non- toxic chemical compounds that poison or discourage the growth of mold and fungi. Effectiveness is directly proportional to the type of fungicide and the quantity of fungicide contained in the finished cloth (to the point of maximum potency). The treatment may be durable or non-durable.

Monofilament A single filament of man made fiber, used as yarn.

Natural Fiber Any organic fiber such as cotton, jute, manila, sisal, etc.

Non-Woven Neither woven, knitted, nor spun. A material made of fibers in a web or mat held together by bonding agent.

Nylon Any of a family of high strength, resilient synthetic materials, the long-chain molecule of which contains the recurring amide group CONH. These fabrics are not recommended for exterior awnings.

Painted Cloth Cloths which have been finished by painting in solid colors or in assorted strips. The paint is generally applied to the surface of the cloth from fonts as the rolls of cloth pass under them. Used for awnings, outdoor furniture, umbrellas.

Pigmenting The process of applying color to fiber stock, yarn or fabric.

Plain Weave One of the three basic weaves. In plain weave, each filling yarn passes successively over and under each warp yarn with each row alternating.

Polyester A synthetic fiber used for its strength and resistance to ultraviolet deterioration. It does not have the stretch and elasticity of nylon and, as a result, will often last longer.

Polymer A synthetic material from which fibers are formed. Usually composed of large molecules (monomers) with each other.

Ponding Water or melting snow causing the fabric to sag and collect water on the surface. Designing to avoid ponding involves establishing a steep enough pitch, properly spaced bows or rafters, as well as maintaining taut fabrics.

Pre-stress The effective long-term stress for which an awning is designed; the load in the awning that results when the fabric is pulled tight on the frame. This stress exists in the awning fabric and acts on the frame, even when the awning is not acted upon by the service loads.

PVC Polyvinyl Chloride. A polymer used for vinyl fabric.

Radio Frequency (RF) Sealing / RF Weld RF sealing fuses two or more vinyl substrates using pressure and radio waves to create a seam or fabric joint. (see Graphics also)

Retractable Awning (see also Lateral Arm) “A retractable awning is a cantilevered structure, entirely supported from a building, and constructed so that the awning cover and supporting frame retracts against the building, and in doing so, relieves the awning from wind, rain and snow pressure and loads normally associated with extended fixed frame awning or canopies.

Retractable Patio Awning Also called “Lateral Arm Awnings”. These awnings resemble typical traditional triangular structures except they rarely have end fabric panels and they include a manual or electric cranking system that allows the awning to be folded up or retracted against the wall.

Recover To replace awning material on an existing frame.

Scallop A series of curves, etc. forming an ornamental edge on a loose valance.

Staples A fabric attachment that uses staples to attach the fabric to a frame system instead of screws. The fabric is stretched over a frame, and then stapled to the frame.

Snaps, Hook and Loop Fasteners A fabrics attachment that uses snaps or hook-or loop fasteners.

Staple on Extrusions The fabric is stapled into a “slot” built into specially designed framing. The slots are then covered with strips of vinyl/canvas trim.

Steel Pipe This material can be characterized as a pressure vessel with manufactured foot lengths up to 24′-0″. It is easily welded, bolted and threaded, and is adaptable to many shop environments. It is heavy and functional.

Steel Tubing Steel tubing is similar to steel pipe, but available in a range of wall thickness and shapes, including round, square and rectangular. It is easily welded or bolted, and can be obtained in higher strengths than steel pipe.

Top Coating The coating intended for the front, side or top of a fabric or membrane.

UV Resistance Ability to withstand decay due to the damaging effect of the ultraviolet rays of the sun.

Valance A short curtain forming a border.

Waterproof The use of the term in relation to treated cotton ducks is prohibited by the “Fair Trade Practices Act” unless “the product shall be impervious to the passage of any water so long as the fabric may endure.” Water Resistant is the proper designation for cloths treated to resist water penetration and leakage.

Water Repellent Finish A finish, either durable or non durable, applied to cloth which makes it relatively impervious to the effects of water repellent finishes does not close the pores of a cloth.

Weave The configuration of threads running perpendicular to one another. A plain weave places weft thread over the warp thread in sequence, then reverses for the next row of threads.

Webbing A sturdy fabric woven in narrow widths for use where strength is required as for seat belts, head bands, etc.

Welt A strip of material seamed to a pocket opening as a finishing and a fabric strengthening device.

Weld The process that connects pieces of material by heating until molten and fused together.

Working Load (Or working strength) is the weight in pounds that is recommended for safe working conditions. It is applied to new rope in good condition with appropriate splices and only under normal service conditions. Where dynamic loading may occur, the recommended working load should be adjusted accordingly.

Woven Fabric Fabric composed of at least two sets of yarns — one warp (longitudinal) and one filling (crosswise), laced at right angles to each other.